Development Management Fourth Semester

DM 631: Rural/Urban Development

The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with the objectives, strategies and methods and actions of local development and acquaint them with the local development process and pattern in Nepal.

Course Contents

Unit 1: Local Development            (LH 8)
  • Concept and approaches to local development
  • Characteristics of local development
  • Policies for local development
Unit 2: Rural Development           (LH 10)
  • Concept and objectives of rural development
  • Community development and community engagement in rural development
  • Strategies and operational modalities of rural development: decentralization, people‚Äôs participation, integrated development, small farmers development, employment through entrepreneurship, empowerment, and capacity building

Unit 3: Urban Development LH10

  • Concept of urban development, urbanization, and urbanism
  • Relationship between urbanization and industrialization
  • Strategies of urban development: infrastructure development, housing, environment and slum management
  • Issues and challenges of urban development
Unit 4: Agencies and their Roles in Rural/ Urban Development      (LH 10)
  • Central government agencies
  • Local governments
  • International donor agencies
  • Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
  • Policies and strategies for rural and urban development in Nepal
Unit 5: Recent Trends in Rural/Urban Development  (LH 10)
  • Rural-urban linkage, response to change on economic, social, institutional and political pressure
  • Indigenous development, local-global linkages
  • Partnership, cooperation and participation
  • Integration of policy and funding streams; decentralization, and accountability
  • Urbanization and rural-urban migration


  • Acharya, B. (2062). Rural Development: Theories and Approaches. Kathmandu: National Book Center.
  • Adhikary, S. P. (2038). Rural Development in Nepal Problems and Prospects. Kathmandu: Lalitpur Sajha Prakashan.
  • Chambers, R. (2004). Rural Development: Putting the Last First. New Delhi: Pearson Education.
  • Das, P. L. (2054). Sociology of Rural Society. Kathmandu: Rekha Rani Prakashan.
  • Hada, G. B. (2062). Rural Economics of Nepal. Kathmandu: Dikshanta Pustak Bhandar.
  • Hada, G. B. (2063). Rural Resources, Environment and Management. Kathmandu: Gyankunja Pustak Bhandar.
  • Singh, K. (1999). Rural Development: Principles, Policies and Management. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Todaro, M. P. & Stephen C. S. (2013). Economic Development (11th ed.). New York: Addison-Wesley.
Cooperative and Civil Society Governance Fourth Semester

CGG 651: NGOs Studies

The objective of this course is to provide the students with an understanding of the theoretical and practical understanding of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs). Students will be able to analyze and conduct research in the area of nonprofit sector and their roles in development.

Course Contents

Unit 1: Introduction to Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) (LH 10)
  • Concept of volunteerism and civic engagement
  • NGOs/INGOs: concept, types and their roles in people-centered development and deepening democracy
  • Concept of civil society governance
Unit 2: Theories of NGOs and Social Capital     (LH 10)          
  • Theories of NGOs: public goods theory, contract failure theory, partnership theory and social origin theory
  • Social capital: concept and roles of NGOs in social capital formation
Unit 3: Growth and Development of NGOs in Nepal  (LH 8)
  • Traditional welfare organizations
  • Growth and development of modern NGOs
  • Classification of NGOs
Unit 4: NGOs in National Policies and Financing in Nepal     (LH 10)
  • NGOs as development partner
  • NGOs policies and strategies
  • NGOs financing and resource mobilization through NGOs
  • Contribution of NGOs: community participation, empowerment and social development
Unit 5: Governance of NGOs/INGOs in Nepal   (LH 10)
  • Legalization of NGOs
  • Institutions for governing NGOs
  • Transparency and accountability of NGOs
  • Code of conduct
  • Issues and challenges associated with NGOs


  • Chand, D. (1991). Development through Non-Government Organizations. Kathmandu: Institute for National Development Research and Social Service.
  • Chitrakar, A. (1996). Working with NGOs. Nepal: IUCN.
  • Dhakal, T. N. (2006). NGOs in Livelihood Improvement: Nepalese Experience. New Delhi: Adroit Publishers.
  • Vartola, J., Ulvila, M., Hossain F., & Dhakal T. N. (Eds) (2000). Development NGO, Facing the 21st Century Perspectives from South Asia. Kathmandu: Institute for Human Development.