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## MPA 509: Statistics for Public Administration

The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with basic tools and techniques of statistics required to conduct social and behavioral research in public administration.

#### Course Contents

##### Unit 1: Introduction to Statistics (LH 4)
• Concept, nature, significance and scope of statistics
• General field of statistics: descriptive and inferential statistics
• Measure of central tendency: mean, weighted mean, median and mode
• Measures of dispersion: variance, standard deviation and coefficient of variation
##### Unit 2: Determining the Bi-variate Relationship (LH 4)
• Correlation analysis: Karl Pearson and Spearman’s Rank correlation methods
• Regression analysis: simple linear regression
##### Unit 3: Probability Theory (LH 10)
• Basic terminologies: combination, event and its type; sample space
• Approach to probability: classical, relative frequency and subjective approaches
• Laws of probability: additional rule, multiplication rule, conditional probability
• Theoretical probability distribution: binomial, and normal distribution.
##### Unit 4: Estimation (LH 5)
• Concept of estimation, sampling distribution, and standard error
• Criteria of a good estimator
• Type of estimates: Point and interval estimate (population mean and population proportion)
• Determining sample size
##### Unit 5: Test of Hypothesis             (LH 25)
• Introduction to test of hypothesis: concept and significance
• Basic terminologies: null and alternative hypothesis, one tailed and two tailed test, type-I and type-II errors
• Steps in test of hypothesis
• Test of significance of large sample: mean (single and double sample), population proportion (single and double sample)
• Test of significance of small Sample: mean (independent and dependent), sample correlation coefficient, test of significance of two sample variances,
• Parametric and non-parametric test, chi-square test (goodness of fits and test of independence attribute)
• Kruskal Wallis Test: test of significance of more than two sample means

#### References

• Chandan, J. S. (2009). Statistics for Business and Economics. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House.
• Gupta, S. C. (1999). Fundamentals of Statistics. New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
• Gupta, S. P. (1998). Fundamentals of Statistics. New Delhi: Himalayan Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
• Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Fundamental of Behavioral Research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publishers
• Kothari, C. K. (2008). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International.
• Macfie, B. P. & Nufrio P. M. (2017). Applied Statistics for Public Policy. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
• Shahi, H. B. (2017). Statistics for Public Management. Kathmandu: Radhika Shahi.
• Sharma, P. K. & Chaudhary, A. K. (2071). Statistical Methods. Kathmandu: Khanal Publication Pvt. Ltd.