The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with basic tools and techniques of statistics required to conduct social and behavioral research in public administration.

#### Course Contents

##### Unit 1: Introduction to Statistics (LH 4)

- Concept, nature, significance and scope of statistics
- General field of statistics: descriptive and inferential statistics
- Measure of central tendency: mean, weighted mean, median and mode
- Measures of dispersion: variance, standard deviation and coefficient of variation

##### Unit 2: Determining the Bi-variate Relationship (LH 4)

- Correlation analysis: Karl Pearson and Spearmanâ€™s Rank correlation methods
- Regression analysis: simple linear regression

##### Unit 3: Probability Theory (LH 10)

- Basic terminologies: combination, event and its type; sample space
- Approach to probability: classical, relative frequency and subjective approaches
- Laws of probability: additional rule, multiplication rule, conditional probability
- Theoretical probability distribution: binomial, and normal distribution.

##### Unit 4: Estimation (LH 5)

- Concept of estimation, sampling distribution, and standard error
- Criteria of a good estimator
- Type of estimates: Point and interval estimate (population mean and population proportion)
- Determining sample size

##### Unit 5: Test of Hypothesis (LH 25)

- Introduction to test of hypothesis: concept and significance
- Basic terminologies: null and alternative hypothesis, one tailed and two tailed test, type-I and type-II errors
- Steps in test of hypothesis
- Test of significance of large sample: mean (single and double sample), population proportion (single and double sample)
- Test of significance of small Sample: mean (independent and dependent), sample correlation coefficient, test of significance of two sample variances,
- Parametric and non-parametric test, chi-square test (goodness of fits and test of independence attribute)
- Kruskal Wallis Test: test of significance of more than two sample means

#### References

- Chandan, J. S. (2009).
*Statistics for Business and Economics*. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House. - Gupta, S. C. (1999).
*Fundamentals of Statistics*. New Delhi: Himalaya Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. - Gupta, S. P. (1998).
*Fundamentals of Statistics*. New Delhi: Himalayan Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. - Kerlinger, F. N. (1986).
*Fundamental of Behavioral Research.*New Delhi: Surjeet Publishers - Kothari, C. K. (2008).
*Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques.*New Delhi*:*New Age International. - Macfie, B. P. & Nufrio P. M. (2017).
*Applied Statistics for Public Policy*. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. - Shahi, H. B. (2017)
*. Statistics for Public Management*. Kathmandu: Radhika Shahi. - Sharma, P. K. & Chaudhary, A. K. (2071).
*Statistical Methods*. Kathmandu: Khanal Publication Pvt. Ltd.